Having a degree in Anthropology, Jos Roman Robertos Moguel also has a specialization in Archeology from the School of Anthropology at the Autonomous University of Yucatan:
WHAT IS THE NEW VISION OF THE MAYAN CALENDAR?
I asked a question that was almost superficial and somewhat innocent, like something was sensed yet didn’t came to realize the essence of its intuition. The subject matter of the discussion was actually different for me from the last question that I raised, one last question and the resulting response, which aroused by curiosity, subjugated me, and compelled me to further build on the subject matter.
In an interview regarding the knowledge of the compass by the Maya in a time well before its alleged invention by the Chinese civilization, I formulated the question to the Czech astronomer Jaroslav Klokocnik. Aztln: If your research regarding the Mayan calendar is true, the fall of the Mayan Empire did happen in the ninth century of our era, but much later. Can you give explanation to this theory?
Jaroslav Klokocnk: The GMT correlation, which is said to connect the Mayan calendar with our calendar, is clearly incorrect. Yet, it is still being used by some archaeologists and they do not want to hear astronomical evidence indicating that the GMT correlation is incorrect and that the entire Mesoamerican history of have to travel 104 years into the present. The newly discovered evidence was research based; it was based on research of astronomical phenomena which is described in the Dresden Codex. It is certainly difficult to convince our non-astronomers colleagues regarding the important change in the Maya chronology.
Was that statement true and what is the truth behind it? Was he the sole individual who was advocated to do it or was it in fact a way of thinking apart from confirmed official version?
OPINIONS GIVEN BY OTHER EXPERTS
I was fortunate to have found another person who had a lot of good arguments to defend the same idea: The correlation concerning the Mayan Calendar and our present-day calendar postulated by Goodman, Martinez and Thompson is inaccurate. That other individual is Jose Roman Robertos, who has lived firsthand experiences that present quite more frequently than we believe. The way official science despises and ignores changing vision in regards to what is known to remain immovable.
ABOUT THE MAYAN CALENDAR
One feature is common all throughout Mesoamerica and it is the use of a common calendar, at least in its fundamental. Nonetheless the Mayans leaped further and developed the system of counting time, establishing the colloquially Long Count. By and large, the common calendar for all people of Mesoamerica, who have its inception in the Olmec culture, is based on the combination of two different cycles. The 365-day solar cycle identified as Haab in Maya language and another cycle of 260 days referred to as Tzolkin, which together have a period of 18,980 days (which is the least common multiple of 365 and 260) or a 52 years period , which some authors dub as the Mesoamerican century.
It is required in this account system that when those 52 years expires, the time count starts again and the days are referred to with the same name they had 52 years ago, which basically reflects the cyclical view of time in the Mesoamerican worldview, but the downside is that whenever a specific date is cited it does not indicate which of the 52-yearcycles are being referenced, which had not matter much to most of ancient inhabitants of Mesoamerica simply because they believed in repeating the cycle again and again. Nevertheless this system is essentially unlikely. If we were to employ this calendar system at this time, we may read things for instance the First World War started in the year 25 and the World War 2 began in the year 15. As a date did not disclosed in which 52-year period taken into account, at the end of each cycle, the specific point in time when something occurred was absolutely lost of track.
THE REQUIREMENT FOR A LONG CALENDAR
The Mayas should have recognized the importance of recording a certain day and differentiate it from any other the reason why devised the Long Count, in order to have a start date from which to begin counting the days without the possibility of repeating a similar right until 5125.36 years elapsed. In the traditional version, the long count, includes 5 figures which indicate the days (kin), months (uinal, 20 day months), years (360 days year or tunes), katun(7,200 days, under 20 years) and the baktun (144,000 days, rather less than 400 years) which have passed since the starting date of counting time, or what’s similar to the zero date.
To illustrate, if we have a long count date 18.104.22.168.1 showing, this shows as:
So that you can estimate the specific day you will only need to perform the following operation: (9×144.000) (12×7.200) (8×360) (0x20) (1×1) = 1,385,281 days since the origin of the long count (the 0.0.0.0.0)
Usually, after the way to analyze a day of the Long Count was deciphered, your next step is to find out the way to coordinate that day to our calendar and that is definitely where the GMT balance shows up in the picture.
Aztln: What makes the relationship between the Gregorian calendar created by Goodman, Martinez and Thompson and the Mayan calendar wrong? Can you explain in your own opinion?
Jos Romn: The question seems to be easy, but definitely not, simply because you can’t generate a small and engaging summary of a job so big that has to have plenty of mathematical evidence.
In order to cite the basics, suppose the Mayan Calendar the majority of laymen say is probably the most precise created by man, or otherwise that’s the most accurate, yet usually with reference to the Gregorian calendar which all of us make use of at present, almost universally, that’s incorrect.
THE CORRELATION WITH GMT
The GMT correlation creates a connection between the Mayan calendar and the Gregorian calendar, which is what governs our current calendar, first passing through an intermediate correlation with the Julian calendar. It was in 1890 when Goodman decrypts the long count in some Mayan monoliths, that had happened to be deciphered in 1887 by Forstemann in Mayan codices. In 1918, John Smith modifies the correlation proven by Goodman in 1905 and in turn Thompson corrects in 1927 the connection created by Martinez
Even if there were a number of correlations, the most accepted today is the one established by Goodman, Thompson and Martinez. Yet it’s just one of numerous proposals. Something which appears to back up the incorrectness of the GMT correlation is specifically the research directed by astronomer Jaroslav Klokocnik, looking to connect astronomical events documented in the Dresden Codex with the dates we know about them when they can happen via informatics tools and also contrasting them with the expected date that delivers the GMT correlation, resulting that the right correlation is referred to as BB, which is a forward displacement of 104 years of dates supplied by the GMT correlation. Jaroslav Klokocnik himself begins from presumptions that must definitely be true for the BB correlation to be correct (for instance that some glyphs in the Dresden Codex fact match the Sun, Planets and also Eclipses)
IS THE GMT CORRELATION ACCURATE?
The GMT or Goodman-Martinez-Thompson correlation parts from a number of wrong assumptions. Because it is visible in any summation on the Mayan calendar, these researchers created an artifice which omits the key fact from Fray Diego de Landa’s contribution, who states that during the time of the conquest, the year loaders (basically, the days the solar years commenced) were Ix, Kan Muluc and Cauac, but they’re still utilizing for today dates, and till the year 2012 the year loaders from a time known as ‘classic’ that are Lamat, Aklbal Etznab and Ben.
In the GMT system, days on the Mayan calendar are shifting in order that a month such as ‘UO’ (the 2nd on the calendar) which implies ‘frog’ or ‘pitahaya’, which clearly indicates the tropical rainy season in August changes to the winter or spring, and the same comes about with ‘POP’ (the 1st month), which starts the solar year whenever the sun passes over the Zenith in Yucatan. On top of that, it’s referred to as base date or ‘zero’ mayan of 4 Ahau 8 Cumku (August 13, 3114 BC) is an invention or a convention to be taken as absolute, but really there isn’t a legitimate evidence for that date.
THE CONTRADICTION REVEALED
It happens to be remarkably unlikely (pretty much bizarre) that the correlation GMT (which is simply a hypothetical calculation) would have coincided appropriately with the 13th of August that the Mayas would’ve documented roughly one thousand years prior to Christ, and almost a question that on August 13th of the year 3114 (according to Schele Fraidel) the Mesoamerican world had been created and that August 13th, 1521 had ‘effectively’ ended the Mesoamerican world on the fall of Tenochtitlan. However more remarkable still is that the GMT ‘accuracy’ states that the Mayan astronomers would have predicted or prophesied the date of the fall of Tenochtitlan “thousands of years before.’ All this without counting that the month Cumku (according to Landa) occurs in June or July, not in August.
There is absolutely no reason to not consider that if the Mayas reached the convention of zero would not have set a zero point as the beginning of their calendar, starting the ‘Tzolkin’ (year of 260 days), the ‘Haab’ (year of 365 days) and the ‘Tun’ (year 1460 days) from the same date 1-Imix 1-Pop and did not require a leap year just like ours to adjust the calendar, yet a cyclic change of loaders. The names provided for times are inventions right after the katun. The date of origin is conventional, despite the fact that we have made an effort to back them up with hieroglyphic pseudo lectures.
Based on the GMT the ‘tun’ comprises 360 days periods, yet this is ridiculous when they shift the count of the days of the year further away from the sidereal year. The representation of the numerals on the registrations doesn’t imply that a progressive vigesimal pattern was being utilised with an intentional exception, mainly because it was not essential to place glyphs beside it if days were what was counted, because it would’ve sufficed to represent the numbers by itself. This is simply to name a few of the disparities in the GMT”
Aztlan: What gap does really exist involving the GMT interpretation and yours?
Jos Romn: The difference is enormous, mainly because while the GMT one sets December 21, 2012 as being the endpoint of the Mayan calendar, according to it on 4 Ahau 3 Kankin (that should fall in the month of April, in line with Fray Diego de Landa ), while in our correlation always the month falls within a suitable range to those stated by Landa. We think that the Mayan Calendar is a numbers game which projects to time from a fundamental core that is:
calendar day (kin)
the 13th of days, (the figures)
the twenty days (the ‘uinal’)
year ‘Tzolkin’ or ‘Bucxok’ of 13 or 260 days uinals
the solar year (Haab) of 18.5 months or One year
the ‘tun’ four ‘Haab’ (1,460 days, 3 years of 360 days and a 380 days year)
Katun, 20 ‘Haab’ equal to 7,300 days
the fiftydozen years or 13 ‘tunes’ (18,980 days)
periods of time (three of 360 years and one of 380 years)
eras of 1,460 years (532,900 days)
and a complete course of 5 eras totaling 7,300 years (2664500 days)
IN THE HISTORIANS’S ACCOUNT
Fray Diego de Landa claims: ‘The Indians state that the Spaniards had just came to the city of Merida the year of the Nativity of Our Lord 1541, which was only the 1st year of the Buluc era (11) Ahau which is the one in the house where the cross is and they came exactly the same month of Pop, the initial month of their year.
In the year 1549, Landa arrived in Yucatan and became the guardian of Izamal in 1552, keeper of Yucatan in 1556, guardian of Merida in 1560, and provincial shrines in 1561 and illegal shrines in 1562 were discovered that led to the Auto-da-f of Man. Landa gives a ‘model’ or ‘typical’ year of the ancient celebrations to be quite inaccurate, but when we assume he was a witness, if only indirectly, that a few of the beginnings of the year were on July 16th that must have been between 1552 and 1555, 6-Cauac year, 7-Kan, 8-Muluc, 9 Ix, while he was guardian of Izamal (as the Spanish had arrived in Merida in 8-Kan at the beginning of Katun 11 Ahau)
Nonetheless, Landa’s typical year commences in 12-Kan but do not place names or numbers to those fateful days, but when reaching 7 Akbal jumps and begins the month Pop in 13 Kan, when in fact it must be 13-Muluc . This is due not to Landa making a faithful imitation of a calendar, yet him establishing Kan as one example of the first ‘Sunday Letter’ to match with A, Sunday and the number 12 is arbitrary.
STATEMENTS OF BISHOP CRESCENCIO CARRILLO Y ANCONA
Bishop Crescencio Carrillo y Ancona states that when Tutul Xiu and his court got into T’ho where Montejo was seated, the priest Francisco Hernandez hosted a ceremony worshipping the Holy Cross, since ‘not being sure’ it was the appropriate time for the celebration of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, or being the celebration of Mass the biggest and most important of Christian feasts, the Indians weren’t competent to comprehend the purpose of its sublime mysteries, the priest rightly chosen to hold before the indians the solemn adoration of the Cross , a rite employed in the holy offices of Good Friday, and most certain accordingly to the instances, since it’s at once a majestic objective teaching, real and moving. Or perhaps just Tutul Xiu and his court arrived in the 11th T’ho-Cib 13 Chen (January 6, 1542, day of the beginning of Merida) and decided to be involved in a ceremony of the new religion and the Adoration of the Cross was performed simply because that day was just Friday.
DETAILS OF THE NEW CALCULATIONS
Looking at the Julian Calendar that was used in times of Landa, who allegedly examined the Mayan calendar in Izamal, and the worship of the Holy Cross might have been on Friday January 6th, 1542, day of the founding of Merida, the start of the following correlation is achieved.
On Monday July 18th, 1541 (day 562,623 of the Julian Calendar) included day 2,000,201 of the Mayan Calendar and the year was 5.481 (year 8 Kan / 11 Ahau) of the Mayan Era (22.214.171.124.4/8-Kan 1 Pop) Usually the Feast of the Circumcision of the Lord, January 1st of year 1 of the Julian calendar happened on day 1,437,514 of the Mayan Era which was the year 3938 (plus 147 days) of the Mayan Era, day 11th 7-Mol Hix of year 12 Lamat (10.14.18.4.14 / 11 7-Mol Hix) and could have been born (8 days before) in 4 Manik 0 (20) Yaxkin the very same year.
In the Mayan calendar, January 1, 2000 matches to day 2,166,075 (1,437,514 1,226,986 = 2,664,500), the year was 6294 and 165 days, or 2 Cauac 01 Chen Year 9 Men.
The world’s end imagined by the Mayas is going to be towards the end of its year 7,300 (day 2,664,501); in the long count it is 126.96.36.199. 7 Cimi 1 Pop, when Vucub Came (7 Death) sits at the head of the Katun’s mat. Is going to be 498,426 days right after January 1, 2000, the Christian year 3,364,507 (year 3364 plus 201 days), or on July 19, 3364 at dawn). Or to put it the other way (2,664,501-1,437,514 = 1,226,987 days following the birth of Christ; therefore, in spite of what GMT states, we still have sufficient time left and won’t see it if this arrives.
The National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) reported that the Judeo-Christian perspective of the apocalypse led to an easy interpretation of the Mayan vision of cosmic cycles as well as resulted in the alleged prophecies of the end of the world.
Experts say cited by INAH in a statement, “It was discovered that the Mayan writing meant end of the cycles, among other things, when the Mayan writing was began to be deciphered; thereafter it became an easy interpretation from the Western thought’s perspective, connecting this to an apocalyptic vision of the world’s end.”
Mario Aliphat and Rafael Cobos, the two Mayan experts agreed that it was the western messianic thinking that twisted the world view of ancient civilizations such as the Maya.
Aside from that, they mentioned, it made it possible for the “modern prophets” to commence projecting the assumed “end of the world” from the end of a period along with the beginning of one other, which generally corresponds to an account in the Mayan calendar. The experts will meet so as to talk about the prophecies of the Mayan.
“To ascertain Mayan prophecies about 2012″, sixty Mayan culture specialists will meet from November 27th to December 2nd at the VII Round Table of Palenque, in a town of similar name, close to the Mayan archaeological site in Chiapas, Mexico where a special session will take place.
Experts said that only two Mayan glyphic texts among the 15000 known, mention the year 2012; the very first of these quotations is in the 6th monument within the El Tortuguero archaeological zone, in the town of Macuspana, plus the 2nd, in the town of Comalcalco, both in Tabasco state.
According to the epigrapher Carlos Pallan, also the author of a guide to the Mayan calendar,”The ancient Mayan time consisted of concrete cycles, which were personified by animated beings and had their own name; one good example is, the 400 years cycle or baktun was represented by a mythological bird”.
The rituals of the Mayans were created to make the subsequent cycle positive plus there’s “certain emphasis” that in 2012 a calendar cycle was to occur, which was “the heart of the confusion,” he said. Aliphat and Cobos also said that the whole Mayan ritual system was attempting to forecast the suitable or the wrong dates for planting, harvesting, and even war by means of astronomical observation.
The Mayan Calendar And Its Cycles
Experts say, the Mayas made new cycles having long duration, which in turn made it possible for them to determine dates from earlier, mythical as well as future times.
According to the Mayas, each single cycle was comprised of 400 years and each was composed of 13 cycles, which leads to a total of 5200 Mayan years (5125 in accordance with the Gregorian calendar), and in line with that account, the existing era ends on the 23rd of December 2012 and a another one will commence.
Experts also said that the Mayans believed that the end of each era the cosmos regenerates, hence completing a cycle of creation.
Experts will discuss many different aspects of the research with regards to the interpretation of the hieroglyphics plus some aspects of the Mayan calendar in the Table of Palenque.
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Small is right for some of us when we travel. Rather than the turmoil of a large city, we want a smaller place where it feels as though nature’s beauty is all around us. If you count yourself into this category then a stay in the akumal hotel options, resorts or bed and breakfasts will surely suit your needs. It is a magical place of natural wonders so why don’t we begin investigating just what it has to offer.
To start with, Akumal can be found approximately one hour or so south of Cancun in Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula. It was established in 1958 as a location for scuba divers to come enjoy the paradise of sun, sea and sky that all come together here. It’s a very small place with under 2,000 permanent residents, yet it certainly has a very unique charm you won’t get in the rest of Mexico. The Akumal hotels along with other places to stay have an exceptionally hospitable outlook and that is something rarely found in larger places. Here, vacationers will definitely feel at home, relax and revel in genuine calm and beauty.
The fact is, beauty is held almost sacred here. This is a major getaway spot for artists who come from around the world just to have the opportunity to paint or otherwise draw from these magnificent surroundings. The lovely white sand beaches aren’t only beautiful, they are also the location where the sea going Green turtles, a species of rare marine turtles, come to lay their eggs. Amazing aquatic species call the waters around Akumal home and taking a tour of the marine environment is not hard to accomplish if you are inclined to discover nature up close. Certainly, scuba diving is quite a common past time here, as well.
One nice thing that makes this location quite a good selection for a lot of visitors is usually that it is very close to other cities. That means vacationers taking in Playa del Carmen, Tulum as well as other cities can make one of the Akumal hotels their home base throughout their travels. That way, they give themselves calm and space whenever they return to smaller, more peaceful Akumal.
If you do plan to come here, know that this is a popular place. You should book any akumal hotels and resorts or resorts well ahead of time in order to have an outstanding place to stay. Make sure you bring a camera, also, to capture all that beauty.
As you’ve seen, Akumal provides a lot that anyone can love. It is rich with beauty that you will find tough to find anywhere else. Artists, scuba divers and nature buffs all love this little town nestled next to the Caribbean and you just might, too.
The above expose was created by Max Barrett. Max has enjoyed living in the Caribbean for upwards of 10 years & is a long time resident of Akumal, Mexico and additionally journals about his expertise of the Yucatan peninsula and akumal hotel and condo options.
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